The College Board Advanced Placement™ Computer Science-Principles Summer Institute: Mr. John Meinzen

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Morning Session : Assessments : Part I : Overview & Create Task

Lesson 8: Assessing Content and Skills

Key Understandings

  • 1.B Building understanding and teaching for transfer require the application of content in new authentic, relevant, and unfamiliar contexts and scenarios.

  • 1.C The course framework defines the scope of the course and specifies what students must know and be able to do on the AP Exam.

  • 4.A Assessments, instruction, and resources should be aligned to learning goals and matched to performance standards.

     

Equity & Access Issues :

  • Build confidence for all skill levels by providing options in a "best-fit" language [Block-based, Text-Based, beginner & advanced...scaffold]

  • Think of the students in your school. What level of skill might they possess? This one factor greatly influences the amount of time spent developing skills.

 

Experienced/returning AP CSP Teachers ONLY : Comparing 2019-20 and 2020-21 Course & Assessments

pre-2021 Assessment

Changes implemented in 2021

74 multiple choice questions

  • Single select and multiple select questions

Multiple choice questions

  • 70 Single select and multiple select questions

  • 1 set of 5 stimulus based questions

Explore Performance Task

  • Students investigate a computing innovation, create a computing artifact, and answer a series of prompts related to the data used in the computing innovation and its effects.

Explore Curricular Requirement

  • Students will be required to investigate 3 computing innovations of their choosing and answer similar questions.

  • This will be assessed in multiple choice.

Create Performance Task

  • Students collaborate in the creation of a computer program.

  • Students answer questions about the development of their program as well as about algorithms and abstraction used in its creation.

Create Performance Task

  • Students collaborate in the creation of a computer program.

  • Students will be required to use lists and procedures that include parameters in writing their programs.

  • Students will answer questions about their program development, use of algorithms and abstraction, as well as test cases to round out the iterative development process.

 

pre-2021 Course Practices

Changes implemented in 2021

6 Computational Thinking Practices

  • Creating Computational Artifacts

  • Analyzing Problems and Artifacts

  • Connecting Computing

  • Collaborating

  • Abstracting

  • Communicating

 

6 Computational Thinking Practices

  • Computational Solution Design;

    Algorithms and Program Development

  • Code Analysis

  • Computing Innovations

  • Responsible Computing

  • Abstraction in Program Development

  • Responsible Computing

 

pre-2021 :
Seven
Big Ideas

Changes implemented in 2021 :
Five Big Ideas

Justification

Creativity

 

 

 

Creative Development

  • Currently BI 1 is not tested

  • Updated is testable

  • Collaboration LOs have been condensed in 1 EU

 

Abstraction

 

 

Abstraction integrated throughout

 

  • EU on data is moved to data

  • EUs on programming are moved to programming

Data and Information

 

 

Data

 

  • Largely staying the same, but now includes data abstraction

 

Algorithms

 

 

Algorithms

 

and

 

Programming

  • Reduced redundant concepts

  • Includes the exam reference components

Programming

 

 

The Internet

 

Computer Systems and Networks

  • Some concepts have been removed; mainly specifics that might evolve or change over time

  • Parallel and distributed computing

 

Global Impact

Impact of Computing

  • More testable LOs

  • Privacy and safety has been included

  • Focuses on the effect of computing on the individual and how to keep yourself safer when using technology

 

CED : Overview of the Create Performance Task

We will spend more time later this week with the Create Task that students will need to complete on their own. This Lesson will focus on just introducing the Create Performance Task (Create Task) specifications

 

College Board's definition of Plagiarism

-- a more in-depth perspective on types and sevarity of plagiarism

 

Insights into the Create Task for New Teachers

Definition: The Create Performance Task is basically a program (or part of a program) that each student must write and test on their own. Besides the program code, the student must complete and submit a written response to specific prompts along with a video of their program running on a computer.

 

The 3 parts (Code, Written Response, & Video) is called the student's "Digital Portfolio" and must be uploaded to the College Board by the student--usually by 30Apr.

 

As part of the process, the teacher may ask students to submit unviewable "drafts" to verify each student is able to use CB's online submission system without being able to grade/score the student while the student is completing their Create Task.

 

The Create Task as an ongoing "test" that the student completes, usually, during the last part of the school year. As a "test," teachers MUST follow certain rules:

  • you must give/reserve 12 hours of classroom time so the students are able to complete this "test" during the school day (you cannot assign the Create Task as "homework" but students MAY work on their Create Task at home if they choose.)

  • you cannot "help" students during this time...otherwise you and/or the students are "cheating"

  • Basically, you must teach and give sufficient practice in order for students to do their own Create Task.

 

Hint on Online Processes (it's easier than it looks) :

The student will need a College Board (CB) login and digitally "sign-up" for your Approved AP CSP course...usually during the first week of class.

 

This means that you will (we will try to do most or all of these during the APSI):

  1. need a College Board Educator's Professonal Login (EPL or just "login") and

  2. start the Audit process (i.e. submit or adopt a syllabus). Once your syllabus has passed the audit by CB, then

  3. your AP Coordinator (usually school or district administrator) will be able to Authorize you by submitting the online Course Audit form to CB for approval. Then you will have

  4. access to your AP Classroom (via "myAP.collegeboard.org") and a Course ID to

  5. give to your students at the beginning of your school year to sign-up for your course and to give them access to the AP Digital Portfolio (to submit their Create Task) and AP Classroom (to complete practice questions you may assign)

 

The following pages in the Course & Exam Description (CED) have very specific instructions on the student's Create Performance Task :

  • page 167 (bottom): Scoring Rubric (or Scoring Guidelines) across 6 rows :

    • Row 1: Program Purpose and Function assesses students’ ability to explain how a
      code segment or program functions. (Skill 4.A)

    • Row 2: Data Abstraction assesses students’ ability to use abstraction to manage
      complexity in a program. (Skill 3.B)

    • Row 3: Managing Complexity assesses students’ ability to explain how abstraction
      manages complexity. (Skill 3.C)

    • Row 4: Procedural Abstraction assesses students’ ability to use abstraction to
      manage complexity in a program. (Skill 3.B)

    • Row 5: Algorithm Implementation assesses students’ ability to implement and
      apply an algorithm. (Skill 2.B)

    • Row 6: Testing assesses students’ ability to investigate the situation, context, or
      task. (Skill 1.A)

  • page 168 : Performance Task Verbs descriptions

  • pages 169 - 171 : Instructions to Teachers

  • pages 185 - 201 : Student Handouts [required]

 

Lesson 8: Participant Activity : Learning to Assess Create Task [pages 49 - 50]

Learning Goals: (i.e. Can AP CSP teachers ...)

  • Explain how student understanding will be assessed on the AP Exam. 

  • Use the scoring guidelines to provide specific feedback when grading students’ practice performance tasks. 

  • Use the sample exam questions provided in the CED to inform instructional decisions. 

  • Use the “Preparing for the Exam” section of the unit openers to help prepare their students for the AP Exam. 

Knowledge Statements: (i.e. Are AP CSP teachers aware that...)

  • AP Exam structure varies by course. The AP CSP course has two sections: multiple-choice questions and performance task (i.e. Create Task). 

  • The multiple-choice section contains single-select questions, a set of single- select with reading passage questions, and multi-select questions. This section is worth 70% of the exam. 

  • The performance task section of the exam is completed in class and is worth 30% of the exam. 

  • AP Exams are designed to assess BOTH students’ mastery of knowledge and skills at the end of a course, and their ability to apply that knowledge and skills to demonstrate understanding. 

 

Read and Complete - Workshop Handbook: Lesson 8: page 49 -50

  1. Review page 163 of CED and the Weighting for the Multiple Choice Exam and Create Task

  2. Read pages 189-201 of CED and...

    1. ... be prepared to explain and provide a copy of the student handouts for the Create Task,

    2. ... underline the following student words (review directions) : "you should", "you must", "you may not", and "you may"

  3. Review page 168 of CED to understand the Create Task's definitions for specific verbs

  4. Read pages 169-171 of CED and underline the following words (review directions) : "plagiarism", "teachers should", "teachers must", "teachers may not", and "teachers may"

  5. Browse to APCentral and find the sample responses that have been scored by the Chief Reader. We will review at least one of these samples later.

 

John's classroom page for Create Task setup, goals, & scoring

 

Delve Deep : Lesson 8 : PowerPoint (7-page PDF) : Create Scoring Guideline (Rubric)

 

Participant Activity : Samples of a Create Performance Task

Instructions:

 

  1. Review the Create Task Requirements and Scoring Guidelines

    Create Performance Task : online submission by 30April, 30% of AP CSP score

    1. (PC) Final Program Code (Independently or Collaboratively)

    2. (V) Video displaying running of student program and demonstrates functionality student developed (created independently)

    3. (IWR) Independently Written Response [750 word limit for combined written parts exclusive of Program Code] in 18 different boxes. Collaboration is NOT allowed.

        Part 3a. Provide a written response. Approx. 150 words combined in 3 subparts

        • i. Describe overall purpose.
        • ii. Describe functionality of program demonstrated in video.
        • iii. Describe input & output of program demonstrated in video

        Part 3b. Paste two program code segments that contains a list (or other collection type) being used to manage complexity. Approx. . 200 words combined in 5 subparts, exclusive of Code

        • i. Code sement that shows how data have been stored in the list
        • ii. A second code segment that show the data in the same list being used as part of fulfilling the programs purpose.
        • iii. Identify the name of the list.
        • iv. Describe what the data contained in the list represents.
        • v. Explain how the selected list manages complexity by explaining why program could not be written, or how it would be written differently, if the list was not used.

        Part 3c.Paste two program code segments that contains a procedure that implements an algorithm and a call to that procedure. Approx. 200 words combined in 4 subparts, exclusive of Code

        • i. Code segment developed by student that :
          • defines procedure's name and return type (if necessary)
          • Contains and uses one or more parameters that have an effect on the fuunctionality of the procedure
          • Implements an algorithm that includes sequencing, selection, and iteration.
        • ii. A second code segment that shows where the procedure is called.
        • iii. [with part iv] Describe in general what identified procedure does and how it contributes to the overall functionality
        • iv [with part iii] Explain in detailed steps how the algorithm implemented in the procedure works. Explanation must be detailed enough for someone else to recreate it.

        Part 3d. Provide a written response. Approx. 200 words combined in 3 subparts.

        • i. Describes two calls to the procedure identified in written response 3c. Each call must pass a different argument(s) that causes a different segment of code in the algorithm to execute.
          • First call:
          • Second call:
        • ii.Describes what condition(s) is being tested by each call to the procedure.
          • Condition(s) tested by the first call:
          • Condition(s) tested by the second call:
        • iii. Identifies the result of each call.
          • Result of the first call:
          • Result of the second call:

       

      Scoring Guidelines

      1. Row 1: Program Purpose and Function assesses students’ ability to explain how a code segment or program functions. (Skill 4.A)

      2. Row 2: Data Abstraction assesses students’ ability to use abstraction to manage complexity in a program. (Skill 3.B)

      3. Row 3: Managing Complexity assesses students’ ability to explain how abstraction manages complexity. (Skill 3.C)

      4. Row 4: Procedural Abstraction assesses students’ ability to use abstraction to manage complexity in a program. (Skill 3.B)

      5. Row 5: Algorithm Implementation assesses students’ ability to implement and apply an algorithm. (Skill 2.B)

      6. Row 6: Testing assesses students’ ability to investigate the situation, context, or task. (Skill 1.A)

  2. Review Sample A from 2021 Pilot on AP Central

    Find the most recent AP CSP Reading Sample on AP Central...note that the format may not be the same is specified in most-recent CED

    Delve Deep : Lesson 8 : PowerPoint (16-page PDF) : Scoring of Sample A from 2021 Pilot Sample Students

  3. Iteration #2 : PB&J Create Task focused on Algorithm with Introduction to Exam Reference Sheet

    The Peanut Butter & Jelly Sandwich Algorithm : Individual Iterative Solution & Introduction to the Exam Reference Sheet (i.e. pseudoCode).

     

    • On a second piece of paper, re-write your 1st iteration steps from Day 2 : Lesson 6 (English or human-based language) to make a PB&J sandwich and start using pseudo-code.

      • Ideally try to use the psuedoCode shown in the Exam Reference sheet. Use // commenting to explain your pseudo-code.

      • Encourage a re-writing and refining using CED terms such as "select" "if", "iterate", "list", and "sequence"

    • Note: In some contexts, food can be a culturally sensitive topic. If PB&J is offensive to you or someone you know--especially your students--please let John know...any simple food recipe that students are familiar with and enjoy will work pedagogically for learning about algorithmic development and learning the Create Task.

     

    Example: Try not to look at this until you have at least tried the Exam Reference sheet!

    j ← 3
    b ← 2  

    // use variables to store (or use) 3 ounces jelly, 2 slices bread

    pb ← INPUT()

    // get input value from the user for the amount of peanut butter

    if (pb ≤ 0)
    {
         pb ← 2
    }

    // selection with conditional. If the amount of peanut butter is less than or equal to 0 ounces of peanut butter, then default to 2 ounces

    sandwich ← b + pb + j + b

    // a sandwhich has bread + peanut butter + jelly + bread...math teachers tend to *not* like this type of improper use of addition
    // except my sandwhich has 4 pieces of bread! ...think error-correction!
    // Could we use a list of ingredients?

 

 

Afternoon Session : Assessments : Part II : Multiple Choice Questions

Lesson 9: AP Classroom with Formative and Summative Questions

Key Understandings

  • 4.A Assessments, instruction, and resources should be aligned to learning goals and matched to performance standards.

  • 4.B Students should be progressively challenged, just beyond where they are, to apply their knowledge and skills in different contexts to deepen their understanding.

  • 4.C Learning requires time, practice, and regular feedback.

  • 4.D Understanding is earned over time.

  • 5.C At the start of the year, teachers and students will complete a short digital activation process that will allow them immediate access to classroom resources and the AP Digital Portfolio.

 

 

MyAP and APClassroom

 

AP Central [apcentral.collegeboard.org] is a public website for educators to access AP course materials.

 

My AP Home Page [myap.collegeboard.org] is a personalized (i.e. requires login = approved syllabus + administration course assignment via audit) website hosted by the College Board.

 

Snapshot : My AP

 

MyAP allows access to the following resources :

  • Public Course Information (i.e. CED, Dates, etc.) which is also available on AP Central

  • AP Audit & AP Scores from previous years.

     

    After passing the Audit process, you will have access to:

  • AP Classroom has the AP Question Bank which includes :

    • Practice Questions from previous Exams

    • Topic Questions : not graded! (i.e. formative questions) but aligned to new CED

    • optionally assign students that are automatically scored

    • questions can be filtered/selected based on different criteria...useful for spiraling

  • AP Digital Portfolio : track student submissions for Create Task

  • AP Teacher Community [online moderated forum to submit questions to AP CSP teacher community]

 

for AP CSP in AP Classroom, there will be "Topic Questions" that you can assign students as formative assessments:

  1. As homework immediately before the topic is taught to assess student understanding of topic and/or skill

  2. As homework immediately after the topic is taught in class

  3. At the top of the class as a “bell ringer”

  4. At the end of class as an “exit ticket”

 

Specifically, Topic Questions, cannot be used for assessing student's grades (or teacher effectiveness!). In other words, Topic Questions cannot be used as summative assessments (i.e. quizzes, tests, final exams) to evaluate how well students learned (past-tense) the content and skills. They are designed to help teachers and students identify student's strengths and/or weaknesses to inform future instruction.

 

 

Lesson 9: Participant Activity : [pages 51 - 53]

Learning Goals: (i.e. Can AP CSP teachers ...)

  • Identify formative assessment strategies that can gauge student understanding during the learning process and inform next steps for instruction. 

  • Explain how to effectively use formative and summative assessments at specific points during the school year. 

Knowledge Statements: (i.e. Are AP CSP teachers aware that...)

  • The AP Exam is a summative assessment that is designed to assess a student’s mastery of knowledge and skills at the end of the course. 

  • Formative assessments capture snapshots of student understanding and inform next steps in the instructional cycle. 

  • The topic questions are formative assessment items that mirror the content and skills students will see on the AP Exam, while providing multiple opportunities for scaffolded practice in different contexts. 

  • When students complete the multiple-choice topic questions in AP Classroom, they receive immediate feedback on their overall performance. 

 

Read and Complete - Workshop Handbook: Lesson 9: page 51 - 53

 

Delving Deep : Lesson 9 : PowerPoint (17-page pdf) : AP Classroom : Topic Questions, Create Task and the CED

  • Note: the PowerPoint is an "early" version of AP Classroom for AP CSP...the current version may look slightly different

 

Lesson 10 : AP Communities

The College Board maintains a set of moderated community message board for each AP Course. This is where any AP teacher may ask questions and receive responses from either fellow experienced AP CSP teachers or from the College Board representative directly.

 

Snapshot : AP CSP Community

 

Iteration #3 : PB&J Create Task focused on Abstractions & Collaboration

The Peanut Butter & Jelly Sandwich Algorithm : Pair-wise Solution

  • As your classroom allows, assign pairs of students (ideally similar skills) to collaborate on a single solution to the PB&J sandwich problem using as much of the Exam Reference sheet as possible.

  • Combine your individual solutions from Day 3 : Morning : PB&J Iteration #2 as much as possible to come up with one solution

  • Some supporting ideas for your classroom (think scaffolding and have students complete Iterations #2.1, #2.2, #2.3, etc.):

  • Note: In some contexts, food can be a culturally sensitive topic. If PB&J is offensive to you or someone you know--especially your students--please let John know...any simple food recipe that students are familiar with and enjoy will work pedagogically for learning about algorithmic development and learning the Create Task.

 

    • Iteration #2.1 : Introduce Complexity : Students may use their previous Iteration #1 and #2 but now allow as many steps (instructions) as they wish to make five (5) PB&J sandwich(es). Note: Students should look for patterns that summarize code that is repeated or copy-n-pasted...this will lead to to managing complexity minimizing the number of steps later on and using abstractions.

    • Iteration #2.2 : Introduce Iteration/loops : Students should consider making 1000 PB&J sandwiches for their school. Note: "iteration" is used in 2 different contexts...iterative development (more complex programs being created from simpler programs) and iterative programming (using loops to repeat algorithms in code).

    • Iteration #2.3 : Introduce Procedures : Students should consider how to put multiple steps inside a named PROCEDURE?

    • Iteration #2.4 : Introduce Parameters : Students should consider how to use parameters to the named PROCEDURE...maybe consider a list of ingredients for sandwiches other than PB&J (i.e. 500 PB&J sandwiches and 500 Ham & Cheese sandwiches)

    • Iteration #2.5 : Introduce Returns : Students should consider how the named procedure will return some variable (or list)

     

Example: please don't look at example until you and your partner have tried on your own

j ←3, b ← 2  

pb ←INPUT()

if (pb < 0)

{

       pb ← 2

}

 

ingredients ← [pb, j, b]

// use variables to store 3 ounces jelly, 2 slices bread and get the amount of peanut butter from user

// selection to make sure we have enough peanut butter

 

// Example of Data Abstraction

// create a list of 3 ingredients at indices (or slots) 1,2, and 3

// How does ingredientList manage complexity?

 

PROCEDURE makeSW(ingr)

{

      s ← ingr[3] + ingr[1] + ingr[2] + ingr[4]

      return s

}

 

// Example of Procedural Abstraction with Parameter

// a sandwhich has bread + peanut butter + jelly + bread
// and return the sandwich made
// except my sandwich has a problem with the named data abstraction!

// How does makeSW() manage complexity?

 

 

 

 

REPEAT 500 TIMES

{

     sandwich ← makeSW(ingredients)

     sandwhichList.add(sandwich)

}

// now call the Procedure from inside an iteration

// make 500 PB&J sandwiches

 

// except this is NOT the way to add to a list using the Exam Reference Sheet!!!

// and there are mis-spellings! How to score?

 

// Can there be an Iteration #4 to have students fix the problems?

 

// How "easy" would it be to modify to make ham & cheese sandwiches?

 

At the end of the Day 3, can you... [if not, ask John!]

Lesson 8 : Assessing Content & Skills

  • List the 20 skills that students are supposed to be able to do at the end of your course?

  • List the 340 essential knowledge statements that students are supposed to be able to "know" at the end of yourcourse?

  • Identify the 66 learning objectives and corrresponding skills that are assessed?

  • Explain the two types of AP CSP assessments and their relative weights on the student's AP Score?

Lesson 9 : AP Classroom : Formative and Summative Questionss

  • Identify the conditions when a Formative question/assessment is appropriate?

  • Identify the conditions when a Summative question/assessment is appropriate?

  • Identify where to find the details of each AP CSP assessment?

  • Identify where to find practice MC problems and sample Create Task for your students to learn from?

  • Identify how each AP CSP assessment ties back into the Big Ideas (esp. Learning Objectives) and Practices (esp. Skills)?

Lesson 10 : AP Communitiess

  • Identify what you must complete before you will be able to sign up for the AP CSP community forum?

 

Daily Checkout : Day 3